Honors Anatomy and Physiology Online Course Outline

21 lessons with 7, two-hour labs

Lessons will be completed online

Labs will take place in Firelight Academy's lab room on your schedule

There is an optional Cadaver Lab Field Trip at the end of this course!

 

Lab 1: Examining the Bones: Students will start the course by examining the structures that provide our bodies support. Bones! Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of bones, and apply them in three labs. The first will test the student’s knowledge of bone anatomy and structure by having them analyze and treat x-ray images of various bone breaks. The second will test the student’s knowledge of bone storage by having them diagnose calcium levels of a mock patient. The third will test the student’s knowledge of joints, by having the student use a goniometer to measure movement and flexibility.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What are the main functions of bones?

  2. What is the anatomy of bones?

  3. How does the way a person is injured affect how a bone is broken?

  4. How do feedback loops maintain homeostasis in the body?

  5. How do osteoblasts and osteoclasts work to maintain skeletal structure and calcium levels in the body?

 

Lab 2: Examining Muscles: Students will continue with the theme of movement by studying muscles. Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of muscles, paying particular attention to the inner workings of muscles on a cellular level. In this lab, students will graph muscular endurance and fatigue using probes and computer software. They will also experiment with ATP concentrations on preserved rabbit cadaver muscle tissues. Lastly, students will diagram various muscle tissues under a microscope, being sure to indicate the tissue type as cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or skeletal muscle.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of muscles?

  2. What is the anatomy of muscles?

  3. How do muscles cause contraction on a cellular level?

  4. How does muscular fatigue occur?

  5. What does endurance and strength look like on a cellular level?

  6. How does ATP affect muscle contraction?

  7. What is the difference between skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle?

  8. How do I focus a microscope?

  9. How do muscles and bones work together to provide movement?



 

Lab 3: Examining the Digestive: Students will now observe what is used to provide the muscles with ATP so we can move--food! Students will study how the body breaks down and absorbs the four macromolecules that provide our bodies with everything we need to survive. In this lab, students will use chemical indicators to determine which substances contain which macromolecules. Additionally, with the use of computer software and probes, students will determine how temperature and pH affect the rate in which enzymes break down those macromolecules.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the digestive system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the digestive system?

  3. What are the functions of the four macromolecules?

  4. What foods provide us with each macromolecule?

  5. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fat?

  6. What is the difference between monomers and polymers?

  7. What enzymes digest our food, where are they synthesized, and where do they digest?

  8. How does temperature and pH affect enzyme function?

 

Lab 4: Urinary System: Students will move on to the urinary system, which provides our bodies with waste removal and blood pressure balance. Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system, and apply their knowledge in two labs. Students will first dissect a pig kidney, properly labeling the various features that allow for blood filtration. Next, students will perform a urinalysis test to uncover health complications of fictional patients. Both of these will enforce the understandings how various body systems are linked.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the urinary system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the urinary system?

  3. Where are ions, glucose, salts, and other substances absorbed in the nephron?

  4. How does the urinary system affect blood pressure?

  5. What is a feedback loop, and how does it help maintain homeostasis?

  6. What hormones regulate the urinary system?

  7. What health conditions impede the urinary system?

  8. What is blood pressure?

  9. How does diuretic blood pressure medication work?


 

Lab 5: Cardiovascular System: Because the students have just learned about blood pressure, we will immediately dive into the cardiovascular system. Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of the heart, and apply it to the following three labs. First, the students will dissect a cow heart, properly labeling the various features of that allow the heart to pump blood. Next, students will perform an EKG lab, where they will hook a patient or themselves up with electrodes, read, and analyze the EKG of the individual. Lastly, students will perform a heart rate lab, coming up with their own experiment to determine what variable could affect a person’s heart rate. Students will use this information to write a formal lab report.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the cardiovascular system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the cardiovascular system?

  3. What is the path of blood through the heart?

  4. What is an EKG, how is it generated and how do you read it?

  5. What is BPM and how can it be affected?

  6. What is the scientific method?

  7. How do you write a formal lab report?

  8. How does diet affect your cardiovascular health?

  9. What are some cardiovascular innovations that medical professionals perform on patients who have occluded coronary arteries?

 

Lab 6: Respiratory System: Students will learn how the heart and lungs are so closely related by jumping into the respiratory system. Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system, and apply that knowledge to two labs. In the first lab, students will use a centrifuge to measure the hematocrit levels of several patients. Students will diagnose those patients, and use their knowledge of the relationship between hematocrit and oxygen to determine the overall health of each individual. Next, students will perform a spirometer test, which will measure their total lung capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and allow them to calculate their minute volume. By the end of this unit, students will be able to see how oxygen is essential to the production of ATP, how it is carried throughout the body by the blood, and how waste in the form of carbon dioxide is transported out of the body.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the respiratory system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the respiratory system?

  3. How do the lungs transport oxygen to the blood?

  4. How does the blood transport oxygen to the body?

  5. Why is oxygen important for our survival?

  6. Why do we exhale carbon dioxide?

  7. What is a spirometer test, and how do we measure it?

  8. How does smoking impede respiratory function?


 

Lab 7: Nervous System: We now know how the body functions, but what tells the body what to do? The nervous system will teach students how the body communicates with itself, and how the body communicates with the outside world. Students will learn the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, and apply that knowledge to four labs. First, students will dissect and properly label a sheep brain. Then, students will perform a reflex test to determine the response time between a reflex and a purposeful movement. This experiment will be done using computer software, accelerometers, and probes. Next, students will properly dissect and label a cow eye. Then, students will complete several eye tests, being sure to explain the function for each test in relation to our vision.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the nervous system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the nervous system?

  3. How does a neuron communicate through action potentials?

  4. What is the difference between a reflex and a purposeful movement?

  5. How does the anatomy of our brain contribute to our identity and personality?

  6. What is the anatomy of the eye?

  7. How does the eye focus and communicate sight to the body?

  8. What is the purpose of various eye exam tests?

 

Lab 8: Endocrine System: The system that everyone underplays, but is so important! Students will not participate in any labs for this unit, but they will still be provided with content that teaches them the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system. Students will learn the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands, how those hormones are transported throughout the body, and how positive and negative feedback loops help the body maintain homeostasis.

 

Questions they will answer:

  1. What is the main function of the endocrine system?

  2. What is the anatomy of the endocrine system?

  3. How do positive and negative feedback loops help maintain homeostasis?

  4. What hormones affect each body system?

  5. How do hormones communicate within the body?

  6. How do hormones communicate with the outside world?

FIRELIGHT ACADEMY

512-363-6256

austinfirelightacademy@gmail.com

4716 Bull Creek Road, Austin, TX